The World Bank Group
The DKU team was involved in the development of the Climate Change Development Report for Kazakhstan.
According to various expert estimates, Kazakhstan is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. The processes of desertification and degradation of pasture ecosystems occurring as a result of climate change; increasing water demand and scarcity; an increase of natural emergencies, as well as a shift in the ranges of many species of flora and fauna, aggravate the development of not only the agricultural sector but also significantly affect the entire national economy. The national requirements to adopt and implement adaptation measures are reflected in the new Environmental Code and the NDC to the Paris Agreement.
In the context of climate change mitigation, it should be noted that the sectoral structure of GHG emissions in recent years has not changed significantly: in 2019, their largest source was energy (about 80%), agriculture (10%) and industry (6%). Thus, the Draft Doctrine of achieving carbon neutrality until 2060 involves the transformation of the main sectors of the economy, which should include measures to sequester carbon in pasture and forest ecosystems, as well as take into account the potential of water resources.
Sequestration potential of crops and rangelands management, while requiring additional investments, has great potential in Kazakhstan, but adaptation to climate change is critical to ensure national water and food security. In the short- and long-term perspective it is suggested to mainstream climate-smart agriculture practices, such as drip irrigation, bioenergy production, agroforestry, forest cultivation, greenhouses, organic farming as well as improve sustainable rangelands management, including natural ecosystems and agricultural lands. To ensure carbon neutrality in Kazakhstan it is advisable to sustain transboundary cooperation through effective basin management, reduce water-related hazards and increase small hydropower capacities.